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Jadwiga of Poland, 1387 AD - Women War Queens by Gambargin Jadwiga of Poland, 1387 AD - Women War Queens by Gambargin
A Concept Drawing of Queen....I mean, King Regnant Jadwiga of Poland. She is one of the few female rulers of her own right in the medieval European world, in an era where queen regnant is uncommon, as well as playing an important part in giving birth to the powerful Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth we know today.


Historical Women War Queens Logo by Gambargin
Project: Women War Queens Series

"Wchodząc między wrony, krakaj jak i one"


DRAWING COMMENTARIES

Made in collaboration under the guidance and historical advice from :iconuracca:. After the recent events, she has helped me to see if i can start and get into the habbit of drawing again. Inspired by her recent works on Artemisia of Caria, as well as the poll I made earlier on which "Historical Women Warriors I should Draw?".

The depiction of King Jadwiga is a rather tricky one, because the only source on which i used to study what arms and armors medieval polish kingdom used was from the Paintings of Jan Matejko, a renowned polish painters known for his portrayal of historical figures and battles. I actually recycled the design in which i used previously for the Polish Woman Warrior in the historically wrong sketch series, Panna Kazimiera of Krolestwo Polonie (Polish) by Gambargin, a segmented plate armor, with chainmail. But, given the status of Jadwiga, i made a little stylization such as the shield, a more refined plate, and crowned bascinet with aventail. This is what i imagined how she would look like during her (mostly peaceful) military campaign against Halych/Halicz in 1387.

Inspired by the theme song: Krzesimir Dębski - Pieśń mili (Stara Baśń OST) as well as from eating Bigos a week ago.


Dedicated to the polish deviants who has supported my artwork,with special mentions to :iconpaweldaruk::iconjoolita::iconakitku::iconugiel::iconbricksandstones::iconhannahalmare::iconstankothegreat::iconsearleit:.


HISTORICAL COMMENTARIES

The figure of Jadwiga of Poland is a celebrated one in Polish history, but in my opinion, she remains a less popular figure outside Poland than the other women of power in the medieval history, like that of Eleanor of Aquitaine or Matilda of Tuscany (or canossa). But alas, Jadwiga herself deserve a mention in this series, a ruler of her own right, a venerated saint and a popular figure widely adored in amongst the Polish People and beyond.

How she came into power is one interesting part in which to study. For most part of the Medieval polish history, since the time of its christenization and coronation of King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025, Poland had been ruled by the Piast dynasty. However, in 1370, the line ended when King Casimir III, decided to pass the kingship to the son of his sister Elizabeth, Louis I of Hungry. When Louis died in 1382, the Hungarian throne was inherited to his eldest daughter, Mary, whom at this time, is under the regency of Elizabeth of Bosnia.

Now, what it interesting is that, Power within the Kingdom of Poland was mostly held by the Szlachtas of Lesser Poland. By this time, the Szlachtas disliked the idea of continuing personal unions with Hungary, and rejected Mary's fiancee, Sigismund as a regent for Poland...so they choosed Mary's youngest sister instead, Hewdig, or better known as Jadwiga. The decision was met with long negotiation with Jadwiga's mother, as well as a bit of civil war in greater poland. The result was the arrival of Jadwiga to the polish court at the age of 10, and was crowned as the King of Poland somewhere in 1384-1385.

If you are still wondering why the title of King is used instead of Queen, you can ask any polish people when enjoying your Bigos at a local Polish deli. Anyway, the reason being was that, Medieval Polish Law had no rule against Female Ruler (in this case, Queen Regnant), nor that it specify the King must be male, hence the title King Jadwiga. It is also understood that the tile King itself emphasized that Jadwiga was a ruler of her own right, neither a Queen Regent (Ruler until legitimate heir comes to age) nor Queen Consort (Wife of King).
Regardless of how one debates the title, as far as history is concerned, Jadwiga herself was an interesting figure. She was known for her beauty, as well as her intelligence. Being a polyglot, she could speak 5 different languages and was a patron of science, art, as well as court life. She made a Rationale liturgical vestment by herself and donated it to the Archbishop of Kraków. She also lead her own military campaign against the city of Halicz in 1387 to reclaim the lost land from Hungary in a claim dispute. Despite all of that, historically speaking, Jadwiga probably held few, if not little power, as the majority of it were held by the Szlachtas of Poland.

During her reign, the situation in Eastern Europe was pretty volatile. By this time, the Knights of the Teutonic Order had been carving and setting up power bases along the baltic coast, launching crusades against the Baltic pagans in order to 'bring light' to the many pagan tribes. Initially, there were already crusades done by the livonians, but when the Teutonic Order came into the region under poland's request, the whole affair turned into what historians referred to as genocide. In the course of this history, the Teutonic order came in conflict with the polish kingdom, and the surviving pagan power Grand Duchy of Lithuania who is struggling to fend of the crusades.

The ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Jogaila (later known as Władysław II Jagiełło) and the Lithuanian nobles understood that eventual conversion to Christianity was inevitable, so as to ensure the survival of its people amids the zealous christian neighbors like that of the Teutonic Order, who were keen to convert the Grand duchy into Catholicism. There were few options for conversion; the one presented by the knights would put the Grand Duchy at disadvantages, while the ones presented by the grand duchy of Moscow was not better (They were Orthodox Christians), so Jogaila chosed the ones presented by the polish nobles, marry Jadwiga and brought the 2 country into personal union. In 1385, Jogaila married Jadwiga and converted into Catholic Christianity, establishing the Union of Krewo, an important even on which Poland and Lithuania were brought together under a personal union. Although for most of the early part the Union was met with a lot of friction, as well as the resentment amongst the Lithuanian nobles due to growing polish influences, but in the end, almost 2 centuries later, with the Union of Lublin in 1569, the two nations merged together, giving the birth to one of Europe's most dynamic, powerful and vibrant state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Perhaps, the role of Jadwiga in the complexity of the politics in her era may seemed little compared to her achievements, her history serves as an example that a woman could indeed ruled her own country herself, and retained her royal rights even after marriage to another sovereign. In Jadwiga's case, this resulted in the union of Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, that was one of the turning points in the history of Eastern Europe.

====================================================================================================================


Next in the series - Zenobia of Palmyra


You can see another Historical Women Warriors drawn from this series:

Artemisia I of Caria, 480 BC - Women War Queens by Gambargin Artemisia of Caria, Queen of Halicarnassus


 Aethelflaed of Mercia, 917 AD - Women War Queens by Gambargin Aethelfaled of Mercia, An Anglo-Saxon Lady of the Mercians

You can suggest or contribute to the voting in the poll "Historical Women Warriors I should Draw?"

If you prefer to look at the representation of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Historically Wrong Sketch Series, please check Eufrozyna Jerzywoska of Rzeczpospolita Wendowie by Gambargin.
Add a Comment:
 
:iconmyrth1:
Myrth1 Featured By Owner Feb 14, 2015
PPPS
That mess I've mentioned and then Jadwiga's marriage with Jagiełło are the reasons why such thing like Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was even possible, with nobles firmly holding more and more power, instead of "traditional" increasing power of the kings, like it happend in pretty much every other European monarchy
Reply
:iconmyrth1:
Myrth1 Featured By Owner Feb 14, 2015
All the history is dandy and well, until the term "Union" is used in context of "Krewo Agreement".

That was the last seminar for "
Primary sources for medieval history of Poland" we've got (yup, I've manage to have 3 out of 6 terms on History, meaning at least till 1750 I'm more or less officially trained in European and Polish history - lots of boring stuff and pointless wars). The seminar was mostly focused on reading sources and discussing why the hell sources says A, while school textbooks says B, usually completely made up trivia barely related with sources.
But since it would be pointless to talk about propaganda and historical myths, let's better focus on facts

There was no union in Krewo. The whole agreement wasn't even about any alliance for that matter.
It was a diplomatic act of arranged marriage.
Jadwiga was 12 back then and her rule was purely titular at that moment (she wasn't active ruler till 14 and that was only because she had to be one for her marriage with Jagiełło to have any political sense - she was "active" for less than few weeks; not to mention 14 being back then legal age, hence they waited two years befor marriage). All the political matters were handled by her (pretty good and suprisingly loyal) council and it was in their interest to:
- find an adult and active king
- protect their Eastern flank
- find a king that will be interested in actions against Teutonic Order, "sworn enemy" of Poland
Which pretty much meant they needed Lithuanian Grand Duke as their king, since that was the person that could combine all those merits into single person AND Jagiełło was quite competent ruler on his own.

There isn't even word "union" or "alliance" or anything like that in the text of the document. But it's quite vocal text about rules and expectations each side has about marriage between Jadwiga and Jagiełło: how it will happen, more or less when, what dowry Jagiełło will bring (basically returning what Lithuanians looted from Poland), how much money will be given to William, Duke of Austria, to whom Jadwiga was promised when she was born (fun, right? :XD:) and stuff like that. No union, no alliance, nothing. The only reason why there was any "union" afterward was purely personal one after Jagiełło was crowned as Polish king, since he was both king of Poland and grand duke of Lithuania at the same time.
I could provide the text, BUT it's either in Latin and written with late medieval handwritting (lovely for masochistic acts) OR Polish translation - non of which would suit you ^^;

PS
Jadwiga was crowned as King of Poland on 16th October, 1384, in Cracow by Bodzanta, archbishops of Gniezno. That was about a month after her arrival to Poland.

PPS
If you feel like suicidal, I can write a summary in my broken English of all the fun stuff that happend in Poland between Kazimierz The Great and Władysław II Jagiełło, since it's a GREAT mess with alliances, local political interest, national political interest, interstate political interest and all those "fun" things that came into action when suddenly your king end up without legal male heir.
After all, Jadwiga wasn't first women to rule in Poland (that was her older sister, without even having any titulature to do so!) nor the last one (famous queen Bona Sforza, who was the real person in charge during Zygmunt I the Old reign and her son, Zygmunt II Augustus early years)
Reply
:iconragnarok6664:
Ragnarok6664 Featured By Owner Oct 12, 2014  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Top notch :)
Reply
:iconbricksandstones:
BricksandStones Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
I really like this drawing - I am not sure if this is deliberate but I like how cheerful she seems - I think this corresponds well with her image as a very positive figure without being a tragic martyr. Her armor looks great and I like the eagle and castle in the background! Also, thank you for mentioning me! I really hope you will get to draw more and that you will find pleasure in it :)
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Good to hear from you again my friend! :) Well, i tried with the cheerful expression to give a lighter image, and i'm glad you like this version of Queen...i mean King Jadwiga! you've been very kind in supporting my artworks, especially on Polish related topic, so i believe you deserve a mention :D
Reply
:iconjoolita:
joolita Featured By Owner Jul 5, 2014
Thank you for including her in your project. Jadwiga is rather marginalised in the school history in Poland, which mostly concentrates on Jogali and his deeds. She is usually treated as a saint woman with little to no political meaning. It is nice to see her presented in a less idealised way.
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Thanks Joolita! For some reason, maybe due to my fascination of polish history, i decided to depict her and including King Jadwiga in the series. Besides, from what i have read, she did take part in military campaign and other administrative work, though it may be given less light than Jogalia and other polish schlataz of the time.
Reply
:iconeldr-fire:
Eldr-Fire Featured By Owner Jul 4, 2014  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
That was really cool! Thanks for the history lesson, and I love your drawing.
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Thank you for the compliment! :)
Reply
:iconmedievallass:
medievallass Featured By Owner Jul 2, 2014  Hobbyist Writer
Lovely work, just beautiful historical illustration!

Hayley :floating:
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
I'm glad you like it Hayley :)
Reply
:iconmedievallass:
medievallass Featured By Owner Jul 18, 2014  Hobbyist Writer
I love your historical works, they make my inner historian smile :D XD

Hayley :floating:
Reply
:iconsearleit:
Searleit Featured By Owner Jul 1, 2014
Thank you very much for mentioning me, I feel truly honored Here's a kiss for you, my love! Tackling hug and am more than a little happy to be of help in any way possible :)
She must be my favorite king of Poland (well, maybe except for her husband Jagiełło) and I remember my grandfather used to tell me stories
about her when I was a young history-nut, so this work of yours means especially much for me, and I'm particularly happy you drew her :)))

About the drawing - I love the pose, her face and the overall composition of the picture, the castle in the background adds something...
magical to it all, and I really love that armor design, although I don't really think that she ever wore one ;) (especially since she was between 18 and 22 when she died [depends on the sources I guess]).
But still love this :)
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Thank you searleit! I heard her story from a polish gentleman who works in a cafe near my office, and given my interest in polish history, i decided to draw her :D The armor maybe of a very stylized design on my part, as i wasn't sure what active role she took during her military campaign, and as one of the DA member Schweinebeine pointed out, it would have looked like the 15th century plate armor =P
Reply
:iconsearleit:
Searleit Featured By Owner Jul 27, 2014
I have to agree with the statement about 15th century plate armor but
I've never heard of ANY woman doing anything else than sitting at the home
of her husband, raising children, and being a good wife in general (I mean sure
 - some did that, some were great managers for their husbands - like the wife of
Chmielnicki is said to be - but other than that this was thought of as abominable
and unthinkable back in those days. Historians - those belonging to the church
and laity - portray her as a great do-gooder. She mortified herself and led a very 
pious life, and did A LOT of charity - she founded some hospitals, and kept others 
going, providing their workers with all kinds of supplies; she was known to care about more
than material things - she was known to protect the dignity of some villagers to whom
somebody did something wrong. Her husband - Jagiełło - paid compensation to them, 
and she said "Who will give them their tears back?" [what she probably had in mind is
that some harms cannot be undone]). 
So, just so that you know - I really like your version of her, but I don't think she ever sat on 
the back of a horse during her short life ;) 
Reply
:iconlavenderl:
lavenderl Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
I remember reading about King Jadwiga briefly elsewhere, but I had forgotten her name; I'm glad to learn more about this intriguing woman.  Beautiful drawing, by the way.
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Thank you eva, reading her history was an interesting one in my opinion :)
Reply
:iconlavenderl:
lavenderl Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
You're welcome. ^^
Reply
:iconnazrud:
nazrud Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2014  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
kereen bang
kalo jeanne d'arc kayak gmana rupa nya?
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Makasih bang nazrud! Mungkin nanti si jean digambar :D
Reply
:iconnazrud:
nazrud Featured By Owner Jul 16, 2014  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
oke saya tunggu jeannya
Reply
:iconthunderboltfire:
ThunderboltFire Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2014
Nice! I don't know, probably she hadn't wear armor (although it's very well done!). In Poland she is rather considered as wise ruler and diplomat.
But what's curious is that she gave her crown jewels to help dilapidated Akademia Krakowska (Cracow's Academy), so it has been renamed to Uniwersytet Jagielloński (Jagiellonian University). She's also saint of Catholic Church and patron of Poland. Can I ask what's the castle in the background?
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Thank you for the compliment! The armor is a stylization on my end, as i was not sure how she would like and what active role she took during her military campaign =P. It was my fascination with polish history that made me drew her :). As for the castle, it's just a generic one, nothing in particular :D
Reply
:iconalbinavonroth:
Albinavonroth Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2014  Hobbyist Writer
Cool!
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Thanks :D
Reply
:iconjackgiesen:
JackGiesen Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2014  Professional General Artist
You know, I love how you render the chainmail. Especially in the neck where there's the draping effect of a few folds forming from the ears towards the throat. Just gorgeous.

Awesome expression, too!
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Thank you for the nice compliment giesen, I'm glad you like :)
Reply
:iconthe-lost-hope:
The-Lost-Hope Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2014  Student General Artist
Really neat looking, nice detail in the armor. 
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Thanks!
Reply
:iconthe-lost-hope:
The-Lost-Hope Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014  Student General Artist
You're welcome! :D
Reply
:iconschweinebeine:
Schweinebeine Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2014
thats quite a story, que-ahem-king jadwiga :D tho having in mind it's late 14th century I imagine her wearing something more like this; www.militarymodelling.com/site…
minimumwagehistorian.files.wor…
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Thanks bro! I have to agree, the armor would have looked similar to the ones commonly worn in late 14th century, plate armor with bascinet (like your avatar). But I took the liberty of stylization =P
Reply
:iconartlovr59:
artlovr59 Featured By Owner Edited Jun 30, 2014   Photographer
Very interesting! Love the detail. I would just point out that Poland/Lithuania is not all of "Eastern Europe". At this time, in Bohemia and Hungary, for instance, enjoyed a time of peace and wealth. So it's all relative. I do like the armour. I'm not sure how realistic is, but it looks very nice and smooth to me.
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Thanks for the compliment chris! Ah yes, I'm still reading about the history of Balkan region as well as bohemia (hussites?) to include them in the series, so hopefully i can give them the historical light as well :D
Reply
:iconartlovr59:
artlovr59 Featured By Owner Jul 16, 2014   Photographer
The Hussites/Taborites are indeed an interesting group. I'll look forward to seeing whatever you put up on the region!
Reply
:iconpaweldaruk:
paweldaruk Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2014
Absolutely magnificent, as always!!! Well done, mate!!! She's fantastic. :D
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Thanks Pawel :D
Reply
:iconparrington:
Parrington Featured By Owner Jun 29, 2014  Student General Artist
Inspirational!
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Thank you!
Reply
:icontheastronomicon:
TheAstronomicon Featured By Owner Jun 29, 2014  Hobbyist Writer
Long live the King!
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
Indeed, Long live the King!
Reply
:iconugiel:
ugiel Featured By Owner Jun 29, 2014  Hobbyist Writer
You've mentioned me? :wow: I'm truly honored, thank You! :D
Yes, queen Jadwiga (saint Jadwiga, holy patron of Poland, by the way :) ) is very interesting person with, unfortunately, sad history - she was being treated like a bargaining card her entire, not so long life, used by our magnates to improve Poland's position in Europe. But without her dedication the Polish-Lithuanian union could never be possible :) Therefore - glory to queen Jadwiga! :)
Reply
:icongambargin:
Gambargin Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014
You've helped and supported me in my works, especially concerning polish-related history, so don't thank me for the mention. Infact, i should thank you instead :)

Glory to King Jadwiga! :D
Reply
:iconugiel:
ugiel Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014  Hobbyist Writer
Therefore, all the pleasure is mine :)
Reply
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